Geography Matters!

Submitted by Joseph Kerski:

Joseph Kerski in front of one of his favourite things – a map!

I confess that I am a “geographer by training and by philosophy.”  What does that mean?  The “training” part is easy.  I believe that while we all are natural-born geographers in the sense that from the time we are born, we are continually trying to make sense of our environment.  But there is also a formal discipline called Geography in which I immersed myself, beginning in high school and continuing on to three degrees in Geography and continuing on the job.  Contrary to what many people believe, Geography is not about memorizing state and national capitals, imports and exports, and the names of mountain ranges and seas. Yes, places and data are important to geographers, but Geography is the study of how the environment influences people and how people influence the environment.

The “philosophy” part has to do with respecting, enjoying, and caring for the environment, and seeing the world from a spatial perspective.  Other posts on the Day of Geography site make it evident that others share this philosophy and these convictions.

How has this philosophy influenced me?  It has deeply affected the way I view the world, how I view our role as people in the world, and how geographic processes are fundamental to understanding the world.   How has this influenced my career?  It has drawn me into the world of geotechnologies–how we can use digital maps, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and data–to make better decisions on a daily basis on issues that impact the planet.

I believe that spatial analysis with mapping and geotechnologies can transform education and society through better decision-making using the geographic perspective.  My goal is to empower educators, students, decision makers, and the general public to think spatially and use geotechnologies in teaching, learning, and research to solve 21st Century problems from local to global scale. These problems include natural hazards, food security, city planning, sustainable agriculture and tourism, water quality and quantity, soil erosion, energy, political instability, crime, human health, and others that grow in complexity and increasingly affect our everyday lives. One of my major goals is to see geotechnologies being used beyond geography, planning, and environmental studies, in such disciplines as history, business, sociology, health, and elsewhere across the campus and in society.  My hobbies and interests involve getting out into the field to collect data about the environment, computer mapping, Geographic Information Systems, GPS, remote sensing, analyzing data, teaching, hiking, music, and caving.

Joseph Kerski in the field – guess where?

I served for 22 years as geographer and cartographer at NOAA, the US Census Bureau, and the US Geological Survey.  I teach online and face-to-face courses at primary and secondary schools, through MOOCs, and universities such as Sinte Gleska University, Penn State, and the University of Denver.  I am active in educational nonprofit organizations, including serving as president of the National Council for Geographic Education.  Since 2006, I have served as Education Manager for Esri, on a team that emphasis thought leadership in geospatial technologies in formal and informal education at all levels, internationally.  I focus on GIS-based curriculum development, research in the effectiveness of GIS in education, professional development for educators, communication about the need for geographic skills, tools, and perspectives through keynote addresses, articles, social media, and workshops, and fostering partnerships to support GIS in education.  I am active in creating and teaching online courses in spatial thinking and geotechnologies.  I have written books such as Interpreting Our World, Spatial Mathematics, International Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with GIS in Secondary Schools, The Essentials of the Environment, Tribal GIS, and The GIS Guide to Public Domain Data.  I am on work travel about 1/3 of the time, to regional, national, and international conferences to speak about geotechnologies in education and to learn from others, and to university campuses and even some primary and secondary schools.  Some of my more memorable trips have been to 6 universities in Japan, teaching at three secondary schools in the UAE, teaching in a 500 year old educational institute with gold ceilings in Germany, working with a sustainability grant at the Island Institute in Maine, working with a group of educators from Africa and the Middle East in Tunisia, teaching in a rainforest in Costa Rica, meeting some incredible high school and university students and professors in Kenya, and visiting the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Texas A&M University, Texas Tech University, New Mexico State University, and Penn State University for the past few “GIS Day” ( events. Just a month ago, I had the honor of working with faculty at the University of Moncton in New Brunswick, Canada.  But I also find everyday joy in helping the many people who write or call me each day with a technical or educational question.

I write weekly for our GIS education blog, a career education blog, and a spatial data in society blog.  I have created over 3,500 videos about geography, STEM, education, GIS, GPS, and remote sensing, mapping, space and place, and fieldwork.  For more information about me, see, or my posts on

For the past decade, the word “green” has been probably been used more than any other to market or promote products, services, and programs. You may have seen green be applied to things that are truly sustainable as well as to things that may not be.  Last month I even saw a green phrase used at a gas station: “Our gas is clean and green.” Perhaps the station itself was powered by wind energy? At any rate, there is no doubt that the word “green” is all around us and shows no sign of abating.

In my field of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), “green” is used frequently as well, and for good reason. From wind power to tree management to river restoration to other applications, GIS is being applied on a daily basis to solve problems from local to global. In a document entitled “GIS is Green“, it is stated that “With the growing unease and awareness among large segments of the population that remedial action must be taken to resolve the many environmental crises we now face, GIS solutions are currently being implemented around the world that provide the technological and scientific support necessary to create programs and processes designed to return our planet to a more sustainable and balanced level of use. Whether increasing the efficiency of fleet vehicles by optimizing standard routes and subsequently reducing fuel consumption or determining the optimum location for a wind farm to produce energy with minimal pollution, GIS provides the quantified information and analytical capabilities necessary to make decisions that can both support growth and reduce consumption.

What made me aware that choosing a green career was important?  Many of us have pivotal moments that helped shape their career path.  My “a-ha moment” in deciding to work for sustainability and geography is when I read a book entitled The Last Great Auk, by Allan W. Eckert, as an 11-year old.  Because the author makes the very last of these great birds the protagonist, I found this to be an enjoyable, fascinating book that reads very much like a novel.   However, I also knew that these great flightless birds would go extinct at the end of the book on 3 July 1844, and knowing this was the way the book would end did not make it easy to read.  I knew upon reaching the end of the book that I wanted to have a career involving mapping and studying the Earth in some way, and perhaps in my own way prevent future extinctions.   I created a 10-part video series where I discuss the book and encourage you to dig into these videos while thinking about your own career paths.  In Part 1 of the video series, I describe four reasons to explore the connections between geography and language arts, and about key moments in our education journey.

Mapping earthquakes in 3D using GIS on the web – the 3D Scene Viewer in ArcGIS Online.

Career Advice

I encourage you to identify your interests and career first and foremost, then think about what organization would best help you to achieve your goals.  Equally important, think about what organization you would most like to contribute to in order to help meet their goals, because, of course, it’s not all just about you.

The two most important qualities I believe for all of you looking for a career or job position is:  Be Yourself, and Be Curious.  What do I mean?

Be Yourself means being honest about your own job and personal strengths and your own weaknesses, or areas that you are seeking to improve.  Don’t pretend in an interview to be anything you’re not.  Be Curious means asking questions.  This means to ask questions at the interview, of course.  But beyond the interview, on the job and while you are still in school, ask lots of questions. Be curious about the world.  Good questions lead to good investigations. Investigate and solve problems.  If you don’t have some of the skills needed to solve those problems, acquire and practice those skills.

About 6,000 people work at my company, Esri (Environmental Systems Research Institute).   Our headquarters is in southern California (Redlands), we have 10 regional offices in the USA and some smaller satellite offices, and more than 80 worldwide distributor offices.   We are the largest Geographic Information Systems (GIS) organization in the world and as such receive a lot of applications for every job we post.  If you are serious about making a positive difference on our planet with GIS, I encourage you to gain those skills and apply at Esri!

What are the five most important skills that a successful professional in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) should have? I have recorded a three-part video series (Part 1Part 2, and Part 3) wherein I address these skills.  I begin the video series by presenting two ways of thinking about GIS in your career:  (1) As a toolset that you use in your career as an environmental researcher, planner, biologist, public safety officer, marketing analyst, or in another career where GIS is listed only as a required or advised set of skills;  and (2) As a GIS manager, technician, analyst, or another career where GIS or a variant is a part of the title and primary job duties.

I see GIS as a three-legged stool, one that incorporates content knowledge, skills, and the geographic perspective.  In other words, the skills alone will not guarantee success, but are a fundamental part of it.  Equally important is the content knowledge–whether in GIScience, meteorology, energy, water resources, planning, or another field.  Finally, don’t be discouraged by my mention of the geographic perspective if you feel inadequate here.  It is one of the most interesting parts of the stool, and one that might take years to develop.  Indeed, as most things in GIS, it is a lifelong endeavor, which leads me to my #1 top skill:  I can’t give it away:  Watch the video to find out!

On Staying Motivated

Throughout my career, four things have kept me motivated.  First and foremost, choose something that you feel passionate about.  Then, every day at work, you don’t just have a job, you have a career.  You are working not just for a paycheck, or for quitting time, but for larger goals that can make long-term positive impacts on people and the planet.  In my field of geotechnology education, I feel that I am having a positive influence on research, partnerships, curriculum, educators, policymakers, and students, and that in itself keeps me motivated on a daily basis.

That’s not to say, though, that I don’t experience times when I need to work actively at staying motivated.  These times often occur for me at the start of a long project, such as a book I am committed to writing or a public relations campaign to universities.  So, the second thing that has kept me motivated, particularly during these times, is to keep an eye on the long-term goal, and think of the long-term impact and benefits that the project will have.  Thinking specifically on who will benefit and why and how they will do so can also provide energy.

Third, think of the project in smaller components, in weeks, days, or even just a few hours:  What can you accomplish by, say, noontime, today, on this project?  How will you measure that you have accomplished it?  Breaking up large projects into smaller pieces has helped me stay motivated.  Along with that, the fourth recommendation I have is to just start.  Sometimes, thinking about a project is more daunting than diving in and starting on it.  Just do it!  Yes, planning is important, but working hard and putting some tasks behind you can provide motivation to go on to the next steps.

Final Words:  Don’t Toss Your Brain

In my work in environmental education and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), I have seen many computer technologies and methods come and go.  In the video linked below, I discuss some of them, including punch cards, floppy disks, and CD-ROMs.  Yet one tool has remained vitally important in analyzing our world–your brain!  Making sense of our world through maps and spatial data is more important than ever.  As the deluge of data increases, it will be important in your career to think critically about data, understanding if and when to use it, evaluating its quality, managing error, and making decisions based on data.  Keep thinking! The point is:  Toss some tools, but don’t toss your brain!

Ontario Oil, Gas & Salt Resources Library

The Ontario Oil, Gas & Salt Resources (OGSR) Library is a not-for-profit organization that provides prospectors, drillers, consultants, the general public, and numerous other interested parties with information related to Ontario’s petroleum industry.

Currently, the Library is staffed by three employees: one Manager, one Data/Operations Administrator, and one Geographic Information Systems Technician (myself). During the summer, we usually employ 1-2 students: one with a Geology background and/or one with a GIS background. At any given time, we tend to be working on a few special projects that sometimes require additional staff hired on contract as needed. The office of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry’s (MNRF) Geologist is also located in our building. The main MNRF building is conveniently located a few steps away from the Library, which is quite useful considering the inter-connectivity of our operations.

In Ontario, there are over 26,000 known petroleum wells. In 2007, Wells Cards containing general information about every single one of these wells became available to the public online through our website. To date, there are 26, 705 Well Cards available for public viewing online…click this link for a sample well card.  In early 2012, a project began to scan all 26,000 + of our physical well files. Each well file is a folder containing Well Licences, location maps, licence applications, and various other paperwork that is relevant to a well’s history. As well files were scanned, they became available online to paying members, and in April of 2015, the project was completed. To date, well files consist of over 500,000 images and in 2014, our members viewed over 14,000 of these images! This barely scratches the surface in terms of what is available online, however, as you can see that there is a lot more additional information that can be accessed from the well cards page (most of this information being reserved for paying members). Ultimately, the accessibility of this data has reduced the need for the public and members to phone/e-mail us to request information, and there is even less of a need for people to physically be in the library to access our data. In 2014, 150,000 well cards were accessed online by members alone. This, of course, gives us more time to work on other projects and allows members to retrieve data more efficiently, but we always enjoy visitors to the library as some days it can get pretty quiet!

logsGeophysical logs (above) comprise some of the data that is reserved for paying members and are an on-going project to keep up to date. Geophysical logs vary in what they represent, but basically they contain some sort of measurement (such as gamma ray or neutron density) that provides useful information to operators and prospectors. Various instruments are lowered into a well borehole that gather data which is then represented visually on a log. These logs are then sent to us at the library and we scan them and add them to our database. In 2014, our members viewed over 10,000 logs online! Currently, we are in the process of catching up with our backlog (no pun intended) of logs by scanning a certain number of logs each week. We are on track to be caught up in a few months, and from there we will scan logs as they accumulate. Roughly 100 new logs are generated each year, and all of these can be scanned in 2-3 days of continuous scanning.

Sample Tray

Sample Chip VialsAside from updating and maintaining well data, the OGSR Library also stores and maintains drill core and sample chips from wells drilled all over Ontario. Drill core is a circular core that has been cut in half lengthwise and placed in boxes; this is what comes out of the ground when a hole is drilled for a well…a picture of drill core can be seen below in the section discussing our Core Photography project. Sample chips are ground up core that comes out of the ground also during the drilling of a hole for a well; operators must gather these samples at least every 3 or 6 meters depending on the type of well. The operator will place these samples in bags labeled with the depth at which they were sampled, deliver them to us, at which point they are washed and placed vials (image to the right). In our 3,600 square foot warehouse, there are over 1,100 drill cores from 1,000 different wells contained in over 100,000 boxes, and there are sample chips from over 10,800 different wells that are stored on over 12,000 trays (image above) inside over 1,000,000 vials! In the image below, you can see all of the boxes that contain the drill core. The grey cabinets under the boxes store the sample trays and vials.

OGSR Library Warehouse

Much of the spatial data that we manage can be found in our PxTools, a file compatible with Google Earth. The file can be downloaded by clicking here. Simply download the file, make sure you have Google Earth (or GE Pro) installed on your computer, double click the downloaded .kmz file, and you will be able to see 35 different layers such as petroleum wells, petroleum pools, and historic scanned and georeferenced maps! We regularly update some of the layers found in PxTools and add new data as it becomes available.

One major project occurring at the OGSR Library on a yearly basis pertains to Production Records for active wells in Ontario; our Data/Operations Administrator carries out most of the tasks involved in this project. Operators are required to submit information about their production, for example how many cubic meters were produced in a given year, to the library annually. We receive roughly 2,000 forms at the beginning of each year, and we plan to have all of them scanned and digitized by the end of June. These scans then get uploaded to our website for members to view, and this is another data set that is frequently utilized; in 2014, 12,000 production records were reviewed by our members.

Yet another project that will always be ongoing is our core photography project. Many clients, members, prospectors, etc. find it useful to view the drill cores that we store in our warehouse. Before our core photography project began, the only way to accomplish this was to physically be at the OGSR Library. Now, upon request, we can photograph drill core and provide it to clients for a fee per box that is photographed. To date, over 2,000 core boxes have been photographed; currently, we can photograph a maximum of roughly 40 core boxes per day. The equipment for this project was generously donated by Charlie Fairbank, who owns and maintains historic oil lands in Oil Springs, Ontario, where much of Canada’s and the world’s first commercial oil production began in 1858. Each core box is photographed three times: once under UV light, once under normal lighting, and once under normal lighting after wetting the core. In the image below, you can see an example of the three different types of photos that are taken for each core box. The bottom (purplish) portion of each core section is the UV photo; this type of light causes certain features of the core to fluoresce, features that are otherwise invisible to the naked eye. The middle portion of each core section is the wet photo, and the top portion is the dry photo.

Core Photography Project

As the GIS Technician, I am responsible for updating our annual “Oil & Gas Pools & Pipelines of Southern Ontario” map. Each year, I make edits to the petroleum pools layer (which can be viewed in PxTools) based on newly drilled wells and new information that has been made available. Some of the boundaries that still exist in the layer today were derived from geological studies that occurred many years ago. The Pools and Pipelines map is accompanied by tabular data showing Cumulative and Annual Oil/Gas production by pool. The data come from the Production Records project mentioned previously.

From time to time, clients will request maps for projects they are working on, so usually when this happens the client request becomes my priority. We deliver high quality maps to clients digitally for the most part, but sometimes hard copies are needed so we will print them using our in-house plotter. We also create map books for some of our clients that require regular updates to spatial and attribute data.

As I’m sure you can tell, a lot of our work involves keeping our data up to date. This is very important to the petroleum industry in Ontario because our data helps drillers, prospectors, consultants, etc. make informed decisions…this is a perfect example of the infamous ‘GIGO’ acronym (good [data] in, good [data] out).

Every now and then we also like to go on fields trips and learn about the geography that is happening in the real world. During our most recent field trip, we visited Sulphur Springs Conservation Area in Hanover, Ontario. We took a few interesting underwater video’s that can be viewed by clicking here…check out the video’s description to learn more!

Hopefully this post has provided some insights into what we do here at the OGSR Library. It’s such an interesting place, yet many people do not even know it exists. If anyone is ever in the London area, we would be more than happy to give you or your group a tour! Feel free to contact us with any questions you may have and be sure to check out our website at You can even receive a free seven day membership to explore the data that we have available – just visit to create your account!

Student: Brock University

Before I begin discussing my day, I’d like to describe my educational background. In 2011 I began my first year of study as a Human Geography student at Brock University. I attended Niagara College last year as part of a joint program between Brock and Niagara College and earned a post-graduate certificate in GIS-Geospatial Management. This was a great decision because I gained a lot of hands on experience working with GIS software and learning about the many applications that are involved with GIS. Plus, I will end up with a Bachelors Degree and a Post-Graduate Certificate after four years as opposed to five. While at Niagara College, I discovered that GIS presents a wide variety of employment opportunities and that I enjoyed the field very much. As a result, I found my career path for when I finish my studies at Brock this coming April. (more…)