Cartography

Ontario Oil, Gas & Salt Resources Library

The Ontario Oil, Gas & Salt Resources (OGSR) Library is a not-for-profit organization that provides prospectors, drillers, consultants, the general public, and numerous other interested parties with information related to Ontario’s petroleum industry.

Currently, the Library is staffed by three employees: one Manager, one Data/Operations Administrator, and one Geographic Information Systems Technician (myself). During the summer, we usually employ 1-2 students: one with a Geology background and/or one with a GIS background. At any given time, we tend to be working on a few special projects that sometimes require additional staff hired on contract as needed. The office of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry’s (MNRF) Geologist is also located in our building. The main MNRF building is conveniently located a few steps away from the Library, which is quite useful considering the inter-connectivity of our operations.

In Ontario, there are over 26,000 known petroleum wells. In 2007, Wells Cards containing general information about every single one of these wells became available to the public online through our website. To date, there are 26, 705 Well Cards available for public viewing online…click this link for a sample well card.  In early 2012, a project began to scan all 26,000 + of our physical well files. Each well file is a folder containing Well Licences, location maps, licence applications, and various other paperwork that is relevant to a well’s history. As well files were scanned, they became available online to paying members, and in April of 2015, the project was completed. To date, well files consist of over 500,000 images and in 2014, our members viewed over 14,000 of these images! This barely scratches the surface in terms of what is available online, however, as you can see that there is a lot more additional information that can be accessed from the well cards page (most of this information being reserved for paying members). Ultimately, the accessibility of this data has reduced the need for the public and members to phone/e-mail us to request information, and there is even less of a need for people to physically be in the library to access our data. In 2014, 150,000 well cards were accessed online by members alone. This, of course, gives us more time to work on other projects and allows members to retrieve data more efficiently, but we always enjoy visitors to the library as some days it can get pretty quiet!

logsGeophysical logs (above) comprise some of the data that is reserved for paying members and are an on-going project to keep up to date. Geophysical logs vary in what they represent, but basically they contain some sort of measurement (such as gamma ray or neutron density) that provides useful information to operators and prospectors. Various instruments are lowered into a well borehole that gather data which is then represented visually on a log. These logs are then sent to us at the library and we scan them and add them to our database. In 2014, our members viewed over 10,000 logs online! Currently, we are in the process of catching up with our backlog (no pun intended) of logs by scanning a certain number of logs each week. We are on track to be caught up in a few months, and from there we will scan logs as they accumulate. Roughly 100 new logs are generated each year, and all of these can be scanned in 2-3 days of continuous scanning.

Sample Tray

Sample Chip VialsAside from updating and maintaining well data, the OGSR Library also stores and maintains drill core and sample chips from wells drilled all over Ontario. Drill core is a circular core that has been cut in half lengthwise and placed in boxes; this is what comes out of the ground when a hole is drilled for a well…a picture of drill core can be seen below in the section discussing our Core Photography project. Sample chips are ground up core that comes out of the ground also during the drilling of a hole for a well; operators must gather these samples at least every 3 or 6 meters depending on the type of well. The operator will place these samples in bags labeled with the depth at which they were sampled, deliver them to us, at which point they are washed and placed vials (image to the right). In our 3,600 square foot warehouse, there are over 1,100 drill cores from 1,000 different wells contained in over 100,000 boxes, and there are sample chips from over 10,800 different wells that are stored on over 12,000 trays (image above) inside over 1,000,000 vials! In the image below, you can see all of the boxes that contain the drill core. The grey cabinets under the boxes store the sample trays and vials.

OGSR Library Warehouse

Much of the spatial data that we manage can be found in our PxTools, a file compatible with Google Earth. The file can be downloaded by clicking here. Simply download the file, make sure you have Google Earth (or GE Pro) installed on your computer, double click the downloaded .kmz file, and you will be able to see 35 different layers such as petroleum wells, petroleum pools, and historic scanned and georeferenced maps! We regularly update some of the layers found in PxTools and add new data as it becomes available.

One major project occurring at the OGSR Library on a yearly basis pertains to Production Records for active wells in Ontario; our Data/Operations Administrator carries out most of the tasks involved in this project. Operators are required to submit information about their production, for example how many cubic meters were produced in a given year, to the library annually. We receive roughly 2,000 forms at the beginning of each year, and we plan to have all of them scanned and digitized by the end of June. These scans then get uploaded to our website for members to view, and this is another data set that is frequently utilized; in 2014, 12,000 production records were reviewed by our members.

Yet another project that will always be ongoing is our core photography project. Many clients, members, prospectors, etc. find it useful to view the drill cores that we store in our warehouse. Before our core photography project began, the only way to accomplish this was to physically be at the OGSR Library. Now, upon request, we can photograph drill core and provide it to clients for a fee per box that is photographed. To date, over 2,000 core boxes have been photographed; currently, we can photograph a maximum of roughly 40 core boxes per day. The equipment for this project was generously donated by Charlie Fairbank, who owns and maintains historic oil lands in Oil Springs, Ontario, where much of Canada’s and the world’s first commercial oil production began in 1858. Each core box is photographed three times: once under UV light, once under normal lighting, and once under normal lighting after wetting the core. In the image below, you can see an example of the three different types of photos that are taken for each core box. The bottom (purplish) portion of each core section is the UV photo; this type of light causes certain features of the core to fluoresce, features that are otherwise invisible to the naked eye. The middle portion of each core section is the wet photo, and the top portion is the dry photo.

Core Photography Project

As the GIS Technician, I am responsible for updating our annual “Oil & Gas Pools & Pipelines of Southern Ontario” map. Each year, I make edits to the petroleum pools layer (which can be viewed in PxTools) based on newly drilled wells and new information that has been made available. Some of the boundaries that still exist in the layer today were derived from geological studies that occurred many years ago. The Pools and Pipelines map is accompanied by tabular data showing Cumulative and Annual Oil/Gas production by pool. The data come from the Production Records project mentioned previously.

From time to time, clients will request maps for projects they are working on, so usually when this happens the client request becomes my priority. We deliver high quality maps to clients digitally for the most part, but sometimes hard copies are needed so we will print them using our in-house plotter. We also create map books for some of our clients that require regular updates to spatial and attribute data.

As I’m sure you can tell, a lot of our work involves keeping our data up to date. This is very important to the petroleum industry in Ontario because our data helps drillers, prospectors, consultants, etc. make informed decisions…this is a perfect example of the infamous ‘GIGO’ acronym (good [data] in, good [data] out).

Every now and then we also like to go on fields trips and learn about the geography that is happening in the real world. During our most recent field trip, we visited Sulphur Springs Conservation Area in Hanover, Ontario. We took a few interesting underwater video’s that can be viewed by clicking here…check out the video’s description to learn more!

Hopefully this post has provided some insights into what we do here at the OGSR Library. It’s such an interesting place, yet many people do not even know it exists. If anyone is ever in the London area, we would be more than happy to give you or your group a tour! Feel free to contact us with any questions you may have and be sure to check out our website at www.ogsrlibrary.com. You can even receive a free seven day membership to explore the data that we have available – just visit www.ogsrlibrary.com/free to create your account!

What Does My Day of Geography Look Like? Map Library Associate/Geospatial Data Coordinator

I work in a fishbowl called the Map, Data & GIS Library. I’m always on the frontline helping students with a variety of requests from navigating Mackenzie Chown Complex to extracting remote sensing data or using HTML to make a web mapping application! I LOVE to help students and thrive on geospatial data requests or GIS problem-solving issues. When I’m not helping students, I’m working on digitization projects that make historical map documents GIS-ready.

MapLibrary

For example: historical topo maps; historical air photos; and historical maps. I also try to keep the MDGL on the cutting edge of technology often my ideas are ahead of their time. None-the-less, exploring geospatial data availability, quality and delivery are my priority so that the Brock University community is served the best data to meet their teaching and research needs. I love my job!

Posted on behalf of Sharon Janzen – Brock University Map, Data & GIS Library.

 

Map Library 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mapping it Out: A Cartographer’s Journey

Although geographer is not something most kids dream about becoming, it is hard to find a geographer who is not completely enamored with their profession. My suspicion for the reason behind the love of career that most geo-spatial scientists have is that most of us have discovered the field of geography in an endeavor to comprehend an aspect of the world that we find particularly imperative or fascinating. Furthermore, in our pursuits to solve or better understand the mysteries that intrigue us, most of us have found the approach of geography to be, not just important, but necessary. Since it is more likely that a study’s data is spatial than not, it makes sense that understanding most data through a geo-spatial lens would become a rewarding quest. Thus was the path that led me to become a cartographer.

Telling NPS park visitors about the bats that call the North Cascades home.

Telling NPS park visitors about the bats that call the North Cascades home.

My undergraduate degree in cultural anthropology and secondary focus on geology served as a great background for my first job out of college as a park ranger for the North Cascades National Park. Many park scientists, such as Anne BraatenRoger Christophersen, and Jon Riedel and others were using GIS to understand the natural and cultural history of the North Cascades. This prompted me to enroll in the University of Wisconsin’s GIS program, which led to a summer of

mapping for the climbing department at Mount Rainier National Park and a permanent position with a small cartography firm in Bellingham, Washington, where I mapped for companies and agencies like the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and Green Trails. A strong desire to merge my cartographic skills with my human rights education from one of my very influential professors, Dr. Kathleen Young, prompted me to enroll in Western Washington Universitys M.S. in Geography program, where I studied and mapped the impact and application of education reform. Also having a passion for statistical analysis, I worked for the universitys Resilience Institute as a geo-statistical data visualization specialist under the guidance of Dr. Scott Miles, another influential person in my journey as a cartographer.

Taking GPS waypoints for mapping Goat Peak, in Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest.

Taking GPS waypoints for mapping Goat Peak, in Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest.

Upon graduating, I was hired by Esri’s Professional Services department, where I currently work as a cartographer and data visualization specialist and have helped start Esri’s Cartography Lab. This means that I get to work on a wide range of cartography and dataviz projects for customers. For example, while at the Cartography Lab I have mapped efforts ranging from ridding the ocean from plastic waste, to basketball arenas and a lot of other interesting cartography projects in between. I map for both print and the web. Currently, I am part of a team at Esri that is developing tools that will make it easier for cartographers like me to access data from the cloud using Illustrator and Photoshop. We were grateful for the opportunity to present our current prototype of this tool at the NACIS 2015 conference last month in Minneapolis.

The skills that I employ most frequently are equal parts statistical data analysis and visual design. In my time so far as a map maker, it is clear that meticulous focus on both of these sides of this balance is crucial to producing a high quality product. A rewarding part of ensuring good data design and visual design is drawing inspiration from previous successful mapping projects, which I seek daily.

I currently live in Bellingham, Washington, where I enjoy mapping my hiking and running activities.

My Spatial Career

My Geography Degree was the best thing that ever happened to me on all scales of my life (no pun intended…well maybe a little). I have worked (and yes I mean was paid) in the realms of Economic Development & Tourism, Heritage Planning, Development Compliance, Urban Planning, Geographic Information Systems & Asset Management – IT….yes I said ‘IT’ and now Engineering….what!

Yes my spatial career has been just that – all over the place overlapping multiple disciplines! There is so much I have done and so much I can do! Geographers can understand processes, data, mapping, SPACE! And with that comes many many many many disciplines! I have held many titles throughout my life (Technology Analyst, Urban Planner, Tourist Ambassador, Technician) although they may not all sound geographical they all have been because of Geography! I have been blessed with meeting people all over the world! issued permits for new land uses and buildings! Built spatial databases! Created and manipulated data to create awesome Maps!

On this Day of Geography I am an Infrastructure and Environmental Technologist with Municipal Works at the City of Niagara Falls. I work primarily with Infrastructure and Asset Management. I map out our municipal infrastructure – sanitary, storm, water, roads etc and attach attribute information to these assets! I get to take care of the infrastructure that supports our daily lives! Nothing beats the knowledge of the space around you! Thanks for reading!

Adventures in Ontario Archaeology

Hello There!

I’m Katie, a Heritage Cartographer for Archaeological Research Associates Ltd., but we are more commonly known in the industry as ‘ARA’. We are Ontario’s oldest archaeological and heritage consulting firm, and have been uncovering Ontario’s history since 1972.

ARA’s Archaeology Department is responsible for conducting all 4 Stages of archaeological assessments as regulated by the Ontario Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport. In addition to looking at cultural heritage resources below the ground in the Archaeology Department, ARAs Heritage Department looks at built heritage resources and cultural heritage landscapes. The long and short of all this means that there is no shortage of spatial data!

In a typical day I start with reviewing GPS points collected from our archaeological excavations. These points usually correspond to the locations of individual artifacts, boundaries of our assessments, topographic features and locations from which photographs were taken. This data is then presented in map layout or KMZ format for researchers, technical writers and project managers.

Much of the background research for archaeological and heritage assessments involves tracking down and manipulating historic maps like the ones pictured below.

Historic Atlases

My favourites are always the oldest maps – they are usually illustrated with colour and tiny people, buildings, animals and even vegetation. This snapshot of a Bird’s Eye Map shows all of these things!

Can you spot the horse and rider?
Birds Eye Figures

I have two really neat maps I’ve been working with lately, both from the City of Toronto Archives. One map is the Plan of Toronto Harbour by Joseph Bouchette that dates to 1792 and the other is the Plan of York by Lieutenant Philpotts of the Royal Engineers that dates to 1818! Check these two beauties out below. The Plan of Toronto Harbour has a delicately illustrated sailboat, and the Plan of York shows so much detail in the landscape, you can see the difference between grass, forest, swamp, orchard and gardens!

Plan of Toronto Harbour by Joseph Bouchette (1792)
(Click Image for Link to Source)
Plan of York

Plan of York by Lieutenant Philpotts of the Royal Engineers (1818)
(Click Image for Link to Source)
1818Phillpotts

Another source of historic map that is very important to both archaeology and heritage, are Fire Insurance Plans. Geo-referencing these plans allows us to map building footprints and materials through time. The legend below is an example of how much detail can be included in these types of maps.

FIP Legend

Due to archaeological site protection protocols, I can’t share much about the archaeological work I do, but I did have the opportunity to work with the Kitchener Public Library this past year to create the “Local Aboriginal History and Culture Bike Tour”. In honour of Aboriginal Month (June) in Canada, the Library made this guide available online and in its main branch, and held guided tours through-out the month. It was a great experience and a fantastic way to bring together archaeology, cultural heritage and public outreach.

Local Aboriginal History and Culture Bike Tour

Have a question or want to learn more about ARA? Follow us on Social Media!

For all things archaeology, cultural heritage and ARA please follow along on our Facebook Page (www.facebook.com/ArchaeologicalResearchAssociates); Twitter profiles @ArchResearch and @ARAHeritage and to further fuel your Pinterest obsession you can find us at www.pinterest.com/araarchaeology and www.pinterest.com/araheritage.

Day Of Geography: Notes from COGS

Congratulations on the inaugural Day of Geography!

view of COGS from a phantom quadcopter in July 2013

view of COGS from a phantom quadcopter in July 2013

There are five programs taught at the Centre of Geographic Sciences within NSCC in Lawrencetown, NS serving direct-entry and post-graduate students. These are:

  • Survey Technician measuring the physical world around us to determine the shape and position of objects or features
  • Geomatics Engineering Technology delivering practical measurement skills and techniques, as well as the theory behind them
  • Geographic Sciences using geomatics tools and technology for Community & Environmental Planning, Remote Sensing, Cartography, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
  • Advanced Marine Geomatics using geomatics to effectively explore, manage, and monitor the marine and coastal environments
  • Advanced Geographic Sciences complementing a science degree with geomatics technologies

Graduates have made positive contributions around the world (here’s a voluntary map) and find meaningful careers across the industry spectrum.

The school (in various names; the present had considerable input from Roger Tomlinson) is dedicated to geographic programs and features the Walter K. Morrison Map Collection. We have been teaching programs pertaining to geography since the end of WWII.

For a colourful look at the last 25 years of COGS, check out this article.

A Day in the Life of the UK Defence Geographic Centre

This picture shows Defence Geographic Centre products being used for battle planning in a military Battle Group Headquarters

Welcome to the Defence Geographic Centre (DGC) post for the “Day of Geography” which will provide an insight into how geographers support the UK Ministry of Defence and the wider interests of the UK Government. It is by necessity quite a long post but I hope you will find it interesting and stay with me until the end.  It begins with a general description of the organsation before leading into a “Day in the life of” tour. The picture shows DGC products being used for battle planning in a military Battle Group Headquarters.

DGC is a complex organisation, viagra 100mg unique within the UK and recognised by national and international partners as world class leaders in many of our areas of operation.  I am the Head of Geographic Research and my group comprises about 100 people spread across four teams.  Earlier today I walked around my teams and the other parts of DGC to capture a snapshot of some of the activities on a typical day. I have also added a few details about my own activities.  But first I need to set out some context; without it the day in the life snapshot will not make much sense!

DGC is based in West London and is an organisation within the Joint Forces Command of the UK Ministry of Defence.  The majority of our 340 civilian personnel are members of the Geospatial Analyst specialist professional group. Director DGC is our “Head of Profession”.  Our Geospatial Analysts are professionals in disciplines including cartography, try geography, physician geographic information management, geopolitics, photogrammetry, imagery exploitation, aeronautical information, GIS, reprographic services, and the management and delivery of map supply.

Within DGC are a small number of military personnel from the Army’s 42 Royal Engineer (Geographic) Regiment, specialists in the provision of deployable geospatial analyst support.  They provide a specialist military perspective in our decisions on how to satisfy military requirements and support engagement with our customers; these include colleagues from their regiment who are attached to a variety of military units and headquarters and a larger number who remain in the regiment’s main base until they are called upon to deploy in support of military operations in several locations around the world.

Also closely related to DGC are specialists in air navigation/air cartography within No1 Aeronautical Documents Unit, Royal Air Force, and Royal Navy officers who are specialists in hydrography and meteorology, each responsible for managing the UK MOD relationships with the UK Hydrographic Office and Meteorological Office.

We take our professional development very seriously. Many of our people are graduates in geography and other relevant subjects, but this is not a pre-requisite for DGC recruitment. We nevertheless believe that we are the single largest employer of geographers in the UK.  Some of our people have completed postgraduate qualifications in a variety of relevant subjects, often supported by DGC sponsorship.  A growing number of us are also achieving Chartered Geographer accreditation with the Royal Geographical Society; this recognition of our status as professional geographers is very important to us.

Our job is to provide geographic information, advice, products and services to the MOD and HM Armed Forces.  We can be called upon to provide this for any part of the world where there is a defence interest (for UK areas we use data provided by the relevant civilian national mapping authorities in Great Britain and Northern Ireland). We support every level of defence activity.  But no-one else in HM Government does what we do; we are in so many ways a national asset and we therefore increasingly support other government departments through a variety of arrangements.

You can read more general background information about DGC on the www.gov.uk website:

About the Defence Geographic Centre

Putting the Military on the Map – 3 January 2013

DGC Receives GIS Award – 4 October 2012

But before you do that please consider reading on to see what is happening in DGC today……..

MONDAY 17 NOVEMBER 2014

My day started with a review of last week’s activities and a look ahead to the coming week.  Every Monday my colleagues on the senior leadership team and our key team members meet to conduct a structured review of ongoing and emerging operational tasks.  This is called the “Monday Operations Meeting”.  To prepare for this I first held a short informal meeting with my own team leaders to discuss: how are things going; what has been completed and what is in progress; are there any issues that I need to be aware of; here are some things that you need to know about for the coming week – potential changes in priorities, management interventions, incoming and outgoing visits; and finally a little bit of admin…..

We then all joined the Monday Operations Meeting.  We were briefed on latest developments and directions/requirements and my colleagues and I each provided a brief situation report on the tasks and developments in our teams.  Some new urgent requirements emerged, some priorities were changed, and during the course of today I will be taking actions to adjust our response.  The variety of tasks and areas of interest is huge and constantly changing.  We are acquiring, producing and providing geographic information for many locations around the world – wherever there is a HM Government or MOD focus on emerging or ongoing events and crises – as well as for military training and exercises.

Everything happens somewhere and our decision makers at all levels want to know where that is, what is there, and so on.

We broadly have two types of work: our first priority is always to support the current operational and planning requirements of the MOD Permanent Joint Headquarters, as directed by the tasking authorities in Joint Forces Command. However, in order to be able to respond quickly as situations evolve (often with as little as two hours notice) we need to have anticipated and prepared as much as possible – this is our longer term planned and programmed work.

After the Monday Operations Meeting we dispersed and, in order to produce the snapshot for this post, I started this special “Day of Geography” tour around the DGC to see what is going on in more detail.

My first stop was with DGC’s Head of Geographic Information Collection and International Relationships; he is one of my colleagues on the senior leadership team.  He is researching the history of USA/UK geospatial cooperation for Defence purposes and has discovered that the very first agreement to exchange maps and survey information was signed in May 1942. There have been many agreements signed since then which have deepened the level of cooperation between the two countries. He has made a number of decisions and sent emails covering the release of UK-produced mapping and data to support the relief effort for the Ebola crisis. The aim is to allow access to vital mapping over Sierra Leone to those organisations that really need it.

My next stop is with the Geographic Applications Branch which provides technical support for our specialist geospatial tools and advises some of our customers. They are part of a group led by another of my senior leadership team colleagues who has responsibility for foundation data production, stewardship, and cartographic expertise. One of the team has recently visited Friedrichshafen to provide geographic expert support to the MOD team involved in the Airbus A400M Atlas programme.  The trials involved loading and testing a number of DGC geographic datasets including raster Map data, flight obstructions data and elevation models, and this is now being followed up in the office today.

My next stop is with DGC’s Senior Geographic Data Steward.  Good authoritative data, and in particular its management and stewardship, is critical for DGC and the users of DGC’s services. Her team is finalising the DGC Archiving and File Naming Convention Policy in support of our transformation to a “Data Centric Working” model.  They are also finalising the report and recommendations from the Data Centric Working Pilot Study we conducted during the summer in partnership with ESRI UK and Raytheon and auditing our data repositories to ensure that we are able to prepare the data for a new approach to storage and discovery.  This includes ensuring that the metadata is captured and stored in compliance with the MOD Geospatial Metadata Profile.

Next on the tour is a task team which specialises in imagery management and exploitation.  They are researching commercial satellite imagery holdings to identify imagery that will be suitable for use as a source for the creation of products to support the personnel deployed to West Africa as part of the Ebola crisis response.  The task team is going to rectify, reformat and enhance the imagery so that it can be exploited by the other task teams.  Although the resultant products are initially aimed at the needs of UK personnel, they will almost certainly be shared with key partners.

The next task team specialises in information important to users in the aeronautical community, such as powerlines and vertical obstructions; they acquire and manage that data and ensure that it is accurately incorporated into a variety of products.  This complements and supports the work of the No1 Air Information Documents Unit, which produces specialist products such as aeronautical navigation charts and documents describing the terminal approach procedures and plans for airfields.  Today the task team are looking at how they can grow their capacity through cross training, so that team members can take on a wider range of activities.  The work has a highly temporal nature as the outputs must support the refresh and reissue of critical flight safety outputs on a 28 day cycle.  This cycle is non-negotiable and cross-training will improve the team’s resilience, but it is crucial to maintain a high level of data quality at the same time.

The next segment of my tour takes in some of my own teams.  My first stop is with one of my senior staff who leads the core team of geographic research experts.  He has reviewed and discussed some materials from the geographical names, boundaries, and geodesy sections which will soon be used for briefing visitors to DGC. He has also held a meeting with DGC’s web services team to discuss structure of the database schema for a planned MOD gazetteer to support search and discovery of information using web services. Team leadership carries additional management responsibilities and he is now assessing applications arising from a recent external recruitment campaign.

DGC’s boundaries expert is one of several staff who have completed a relevant MA at Kings College London, sponsored by DGC. He started the day with a review of the daily feeds from BBC Monitoring; he was looking for news reports that might be relevant to his research into boundary issues and extracted information for reference in our digital filing system. For the remainder of the day he is writing up summaries of his research into the status and alignments of the international boundaries of a country in Africa, including factors that are relevant to understanding interstate disputes.

DGC’s geographical names experts work closely with colleagues at the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN) based at the Royal Geographical Society.  Today one of the team is finalising checks on the spelling and positioning of geographical names on products to support the Ebola crisis response over West Africa.  Using additional larger-scale mapping sources she has been able add names for rivers which would have otherwise remained unidentified.  This will enhance the utility of the products.  I called the PCGN and learned that today they are identifying the locations of villages in an African country, checking the names on another product to support the Ebola crisis response, researching names for use on briefing maps of three countries in the Middle East and Asia, and looking for new information on recent changes to internal administrative boundaries in a country in Asia.

Just around the corner one of DGC’s experts in geodesy is compiling geodetic information for a new training area map so that it can include the correct magnetic information.  He also has work in progress to determine the history of a map of an African country; this will enable us to accurately georeference it so that it becomes a useful source for deriving the alignments of internal administrative boundaries in that country.

I am fortunate to have a team member who has a particularly deep passion for, and expertise in, military cartography and relevant aspects of imagery exploitation. He is working on a draft specification for a new product intended to depict border porosity.  He needs to include advice on the factors and potential sources (imagery and documentary sources) that should be considered, so he is conducting research into the relevance and weighting of those factors as applied to the question of what makes a border porous for determined, opportunist and encumbered groups.  He will then need to devise a way to portray that porosity in a graphical form that is both meaningful and useful to the user of the product.

Anyone familiar with maps will be aware that there is a great deal of information around the margins, including the identification of the product and producer.  One of my team members is an expert in these matters, as well as an expert cartographer.  Today he has attended a cross-DGC daily task management meeting, before determining the product identification and marginalia guidance for two new products over a key UK naval base.  His next task is to review the marginalia and cartographic content of the latest in a series of interactive geographic research products of a country in Africa.

My next stop is one of the three task teams in my group, each of which has a distinct primary expertise, but is also capable of surging support to other tasks as required. They are compiling a “Map Book” as part of the Ebola crisis response.  It will bring together a wide variety of relatively small-scale briefing maps which have been completed across the DGC and by our team members embedded into other parts of MOD.   The bundling of products produced in different places, at different times, for different purposes, inevitably highlights some inconsistencies which may reduce the users’ confidence in the Map Book.  The team are using Adobe Photoshop to make minor adjustments so that the Map Book complies with the latest cartographic and marginalia specification.

The team have other tasks in work for another area in which MOD has personnel on the ground and is using ESRI ArcMap and imagery sources to digitise and symbolise vector data of transportation networks and buildings of interest.  The vectors will be integrated with an imagery base, grid and geodetic information to form an image-map atlas.  The process of defining page extents and index pages will be complex but is essential if the product is to be delivered in a format that is easy to carry and use.

One of my three task teams specialises in research-heavy products which include an element of information discovery, analysis and fusion that is more complex than that required for a typical “standard specification” cartographic product. The team is also developing our ability to acquire and visualise information relevant to the study of human geography.  Understanding the distribution and characteristics of populations (and their relationships with the physical environment, infrastructure, economy, institutions and governance) is now accepted as essential to anticipating and responding to conflict situations, humanitarian crises and natural disasters.

The team is busy producing a range of products in support of MOD and HM Government planning and operations in many locations in Africa and the Middle East. They are also engaged in an important collaborative project with international partners to develop a structured data model to support the collection and analysis of human geography data.

I have a particular interest in the human geography developments as I chair the UK MOD Human Domain Community of Interest.  Linked to this I chair an annual conference which my team and I co-organise with international partners, hosted by the DefenceAcademy at Shrivenham.  The next conference will be held 1-3 June 2015 and you will be able find out more about it on the DefenceAcademy website early in 2015 by searching for “Spatial Socio Cultural Knowledge Workshop”.  It will focus on “Defence Engagement”.  You can read about the last conference here:

Human Geography Conference 2014

The third of my task teams is working in partnership with other DGC task teams to rapidly produce new topographic maps to military specifications for several areas of topical MOD and HM Government interest.  These maps are not being compiled from scratch (which would take many weeks or months) but from a ready-made database of centre-line vector data.  This is the result of several years of work by 29 nations, working in partnership to create a database of features from imagery sources to an accuracy equivalent to a 1:50,000 scale.  The database is not optimised for direct use as it is intended to be the source for derived products, produced quickly (sometimes enhanced with extra content) when required.  The products are then shared with key partners.  DGC is one of the lead nations in this partnership led by the USA.  DGC has a team dedicated to delivering our contribution which we achieve though contracts with industry partners in the commercial sector.

Elsewhere in DGC…     There are small teams engaging directly with our customers to ensure that they are receiving the support they need.

We have a very small number of staff who are following up the applications from our recent external recruitment campaign; this important activity has temporarily drawn them away from their other key function of ensuring that we develop and maintain our professional skills.

We have small teams which are busy making contact with partners and suppliers all over the world to negotiate access to, or purchase of, maps and databases; these are received in paper and digital formats and, after an initial assessment to determine their usefulness, they are catalogued into our extensive libraries.  The products which are judged to be suitable to satisfy high priority customer requirements are immediately diverted into the relevant parts of DGC to be exploited or passed directly to the customers in a suitable format.

In the dissemination group there is a small team maintaining MOD’s geographic information web services.  They are working closely with a task team which is dedicated to the selection and organisation of the products and data that is judged to be most useful and suitable at a variety of scales and resolutions over countries of particular interest, so that customers can be given the best available data in a single large package on high capacity disk drives and through web services.  Their colleagues nearby are extracting digital data and products in smaller volumes onto optical media and lower capacity disk drives for those customers who have more discreet requirements.  For the customers who need paper maps and charts, our team is busy conducting the rapid plotting or high volume lithographic printing of quantities of maps and charts which are subsequently distributed from our map depot.

None of this would be possible without the support of our very small and dedicated team of administrative support staff.

That concludes this Day of Geography tour of the DGC.  I hope that you have found it interesting to have an insight into some of the many ways in which geographers contribute to activities of national and international importance.

(c) Crown Copyright 2014

Environmental Conservation and Community Dispossession in Tanzania’s Saadani National Park

Spatial Research on the ethics of state-managed conservation and the rights of vulnerable groups

Rationale for the research

Protected areas (PAs) have become a strategic component of many environmental regimes and are considered a cornerstone in achieving sustainability. Scientific findings suggest that protected areas can play a critical role in building capacity for adaptation to both climatic and livelihood changes.

However, so far we have had mixed results in the performance of PAs, because of complex challenges in PA governance design and limited synergy between PAs and with wider socio-economic and institutional frameworks.

The Protected Areas and Poverty Reduction (PAPR) project, funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) and the International Development Research Center (IDRC), through the International Community-University Research Alliance Program, set out to understand PAs’ governance dynamics and to enable knowledge to inform conservation actions.

Case Study and Questions

Gazetted in 2005, the Saadani National Park (SNP) is comprised of biologically rich terrestrial, coastal, riverine, wetland and marine ecosystems. SNP, originating from the earlier Saadani Game Reserve (SGR), is Tanzania’s newest state-managed PA, part of a network covering no less than 20% of the national territory. Culturally rich, SNP is also connected to 17 villages. Key inquiry areas:

WPC_DayGeogr

methods

  • How is environmental sustainability affected by institutional processes in the Saadani landscape?

 

  • How can state-managed national parks, achieve conservation goals under current conditions of unpredictable change?

 

  •  In which ways do spatial arrangements and prerogatives affect or provide a barrier to sustainable conservation and collaboration?
Research Approach and Methods

 Primary spatial and qualitative, and document data were collected during a 12 month period between 2012 and 2013 in 13 of the 17 villages surrounding the Saadani National Park. The findings here presented come from individual and group interactions with 217 participants.

 

FINDINGS

1. Saadani’s Prevalent Institutional Dynamics

Saadani_inst_diagram

  • Grassroots institutions and socio-cultural connections with park lands the key to cross-level cooperation in environmental conservation.

 

  • Village bodies  asserting that there are no actual benefits without land tenure securitySNP&CCAs
 
  • Community–based conservation of potential for  ecological sustainability through ecological connectivity/ wildlife corridors

 

  • Early landscape-level conservation a community-initiated action.

 

  • Prevalent institutional isolation and cross-level conflicts among park & community actors

 

 

 

  2. Emergence and evolution of conservation in the Saadani Landscape

 

Events_SGR&SNP

Events Leading to the Creation of Saadani Game Reserve (SGR) and Saadani National Park (SNP)

 

 3. Spatiality & Dispossession in the Saadani Landscape

Detailed spatially-enabled document analysis revealing park actors’ institutional approach to dispossessing villagers from inhabited ancestral territories

KeyTanapaLetterMarch2014_app2takeUvinje_Page_5

KeyTanapaLetterMarch2014_app2takeUvinje_Page_6

Top, original 1974 gazette of the community-initiated Saadani Reserve (SGR). Bottom, TANAPA’s interpretation of the original 1974 agreement. TANAPA’s approach to gazetting Uvinje’s lands: by adding “to where the river enters the ocean” and “from the mouth of the Mligaji River” and by fully omitting: “then in a southerly direction along a cleared and beaconed line.” When has a ‘cleared beaconed line’ been made along an ocean shore?

 

162_6201

Forced compensation assessment at Uvinje village carried out by Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA) in June 4th and 5th, 2014. Credit: Resident of Uvinje

 4. A cartography of Dispossession
The spatial and archive research was able to identify and triangulate the original SGR boundaries, and show that TANAPA’s map alters those boundaries
Saadani_SGR Maps

Overlay of various maps of the Saadani Game Reserve. The basic two differences between the SGR maps from the University of Dar es Salaam and the 2013 doctoral research are: (1) the exact location of the reserve’s eastern boundary (while the U. Dar es Salaam research used the road between Mkwaja village and Wami river as the boundary line, the doctoral research set the boundary based on the location of 2 original game reserve beacons (~500m to the West of the road)) and; (2) the southern portion of the reserve (U of Dar took Wami River as the southern boundary, while in the doctoral research the boundary tries to follow the land features included in the original gazette notice of the Reserve). Neither one of the two maps developed through independent research include the coastal sub-village areas of Uvinje and Porokanya as part of the original area comprising the reserve.

Old_SGR Map3

Oldest Saadani Game Reserve map found so far. Uvinje and its territory are mistakenly designated as “Mbuyuni Village land South of Mligaji River” territory—Buyuni village is located north of Mligaji River, and Uvinje to the south. In any case, the map is clear that the Game Reserve (no. 3 on the map) does not include the village land. The map is presumed to be the original SGR map which was presented to Uvinje and Saadani elders involved in the establishment of the reserve. Source Map: 1996 Report on Research Commissioned by the Wildlife Division to the University of Dar Es Salaam.

SNP_WPCSpatialMismatches

Persistent spatial conflicts (connected to institutional isolation and unilateral decision-making) leading to community disillusionment with state-managed conservation

Knowledge Mobilization: A Case of Research Enabling Action

KMb2

 About the author:

Aleja Orozco is a PhD student in Geography at the University of Victoria (Canada). Her comparative research titled “The Role of Knowledge, Institutions and Multi-level Governance in Adaptive Capacity” focuses on the spatial and institutional dynamics of conservation taking place within and around Pacific Rim National Park Reserve (Canada) and Saadani National Park (Tanzania).

For more information on Aleja’s research and activism visit:

http://researchimpacts.wordpress.com/

https://twitter.com/ResearchImpacts

The research project has been funded by,

The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) through the Protected Areas and Poverty Reduction Canada-Africa Research and Learning Alliance Project. And by

The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) through a Doctoral Research Fellowship Award

Contact: aleja@uvic.ca